Your entitlement to holidays and holiday pay is determined by your employment contract, subject to the minimum provisions laid down in Regulation 13 of the Working Time Regulations 1998 (WTR 1998). The Regulations apply to almost all workers and employees with the exception of those who are self-employed. Your employment contract can contain better provisions than WTR 1998.
Your entitlement to holidays and holiday pay is determined by your employment contract, subject to the minimum provisions laid down in Regulation 13 of the Working Time Regulations 1998 (WTR 1998). The Regulations apply to almost all workers and employees with the exception of those who are self-employed. Your employment contract can contain better provisions than WTR 1998. If they do, those conditions become a contractual right which you can enforce in the Employment Tribunal. Your statutory entitlement is not in addition to any contractual holiday entitlement, one is set off against the other and Regulation 17 says that you should take the entitlement that is more favourable.
There is no legal requirement for your employer to give you a written contract of employment, but they do have to provide a written statement of particulars of employment. S1 Employment Rights Act 1996 gives you the right to a written statement of terms and conditions of employment. This is called a Section 1 Statement. The Section 1 Statement must detail your holiday entitlement, including public holidays, and give sufficient information to allow any entitlement to accrued holiday pay on the termination of employment to be calculated precisely.
Workers covered by WTR 1998 have the right to a minimum of 5.6 weeks’ annual leave every leave year. Under Regulation 13(3), the leave year starts on a date set out in the employment contract, collective agreement or workforce agreement. If there is no such agreement in place, your leave year begins on the date you started the job.
If you work 5 days a week, you have a leave entitlement of 28 working days a year under Regulation 13(1) made up of a basic entitlement to a minimum of four weeks’ annual leave and an additional 1.6 weeks’ annual leave each leave year, under Regulation 13A. The additional annual leave was granted in recognition of the eight public and bank holidays in England and Wales. There is no qualifying period of continuous service for the additional annual leave entitlement and time off for bank and public holidays can be included in your additional entitlement. Although they can be included, you don’t have the right to take the extra eight days on bank holidays or to get paid extra if you are asked to work on those bank holidays, unless it is a term of your employment contract.
Workers are entitled to statutory paid holiday under WTR 1998. Regulation 2(1) defines a worker as someone who has a contract of employment or a contract for services. This definition includes employees (including part-time employees), casual workers, freelancers and most agency workers. Employers must not try to avoid their obligations under WTR 1998 by writing contractual terms designed to bring a person outside the statutory definition of worker. This is what happened in Redrow Homes (Yorkshire) v Buckborough , where the Employment Appeal Tribunal said that Redrow had given the workers a “sham” contract in order to avoid their obligations.
The following groups of people are also eligible for statutory paid holiday;
Regulation 18 removes the right to holiday under WTR 1998 from the following groups of workers;
Your entitlement will be normally calculated in days or fractions of days. If you work a five-day week, you are entitled to 28 days of holiday pay a year which works out at 5 x 5.6. Part-timers or those who work irregular hours or on a Rota will generally have a calculation based on the average number of hours or days worked per week. The Government provides a holiday pay calculator which tells you how much leave you have in the whole leave year.
see – Non-payment of bonus
Following Williams and others v British Airways plc  any aspect of pay that is intrinsically linked to the performance of the tasks that a worker is required to carry out should be included in the calculation of the worker’s total remuneration.
In Lock and another v British Gas Trading Ltd (No.2) , the EAT said that WTR 1998 can be interpreted to require Employers to include commission payments in the calculation of holiday pay. Mr. Lock is a British Gas salesperson whose pay included a basic salary plus commission, based on the number and type of contracts to which customers agreed. When he took annual leave, he would only receive basic pay, which was considerably less than his usual salary.
Mr. Lock argued that this was a disincentive to taking annual leave and lodged a claim with the Employment Tribunal, which referred the case to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) to clarify the relationship between holiday pay and commission for workers where commission was a regular part of their pay.
The ECJ concluded that because his commission was directly linked to the work he carried out, it must be taken into account when calculating holiday pay. The case was then referred back to the Employment Tribunal which agreed with Mr. Lock and in addition added an extra clause to WTR 1998 to make it compatible with the Working Time Directive.
British Gas appealed to the Court of Appeal, and lost. The Court of Appeal upheld the EAT decision that holiday pay must include results-based commission. It confirmed that the holiday pay for an employee with statutorily defined ‘normal hours’, whose remuneration does not vary with the amount of work done, should include an element referable to the amount of results-based commission normally earned. British Gas was refused leave to appeal by the Supreme Court, so now all employees who earn commission will see that reflected in their holiday pay.
In Bear Scotland Ltd and others v Fulton and others; Hertel (UK) Ltd v Woods and others; Amec Group Ltd v Law and others  the Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) said that regular non-guaranteed overtime should be included in holiday pay calculations, but limited the potential historical claims for non-payment of holiday pay. ACAS says that “Non-guaranteed overtime is where there is no obligation by the employer to offer overtime but if they do then the worker is obliged by the contract to work overtime”.
Because of this case;
The Government introduced the Deduction from Wages (Limitation) Regulations 2014 which places a two-year cap on all backdated claims for holiday pay that are brought on or after 1st July 2015. These regulations also state that WTR 1998 does not give employees a contractual right to paid leave. This means that you cannot bring a claim for breach of contract for underpaid holiday pay in the civil courts where there is a six-year time limit for such claims.
In Dudley Metropolitan Borough Council v Willetts and ors (2017), the Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) has held that payment for voluntary overtime normally worked must be included in holiday pay. The question that arises in every case is whether the payment forms part of the worker’s “normal remuneration”. The EAT said that voluntary overtime that satisfies the “normal remuneration” test must be included in the calculation of holiday pay. This would be for the first four weeks of annual leave provided for by the Working Time Regulations 1998.
In this case, 56 employees were employed as specific and multi-skilled tradesmen engaged in the repair and maintenance of the Council’s housing stock. The Council calculated their holiday pay based on their core contractual hours only.
In addition to their core hours, they worked voluntary overtime and could join a standby rota for out-of-hours emergency work. An additional payment for all voluntary work, out-of-hours standby and call-outs would then be paid. The Council excluded all of the additional payments from their calculation of holiday pay on the grounds that it was not contractual pay.
The employees won the original Employment Tribunal case. Dudley Metropolitan Borough Council appealed but lost their appeal. The EAT agreed with the Employment Tribunal that holiday pay must include payments for voluntary overtime, voluntary standby and voluntary call-out payments, where that work has been undertaken with sufficient regularity to have become part of the employee’s normal pay.
This is the first binding decision on the inclusion of voluntary overtime in holiday pay. It provides a clear message to employers that regular voluntary overtime should be included within the payment for the first 4 weeks of statutory holiday. Voluntary overtime does not have to be included in the holiday pay for the additional 1.6 weeks of holiday provided for under the Working Time Regulations or any additional contractual holiday that an employer may provide.
Out-of-hours standby payments
Voluntarily being on the standby rota once in every four or five weeks over a period of years would be considered regular enough for the payments to have become part of normal pay.
A voluntary rota which once you are on it, you must attend the call out and this is intrinsically linked to your job. Here the pay received is part of normal pay.
This is designed to compensate you for travel time linked to overtime work. The part of the allowance that is taxed as a benefit in kind is part of normal pay.
Additional voluntary overtime
Regular voluntary overtime falls within normal pay but not when it is unusual or rare.
In Flowers and others v East of England Ambulance Trust (2017) the Employment Tribunal held that ambulance workers’ compulsory overtime for “shift overruns” should be included in the calculation of their holiday pay.
Workers at the East of England Ambulance Trust sued their employer for unlawful deductions from wages because of the manner in which the trust calculated their holiday pay. They claimed that payment for annual leave should include;
The workers had no choice if their shift ended during an emergency. East of England Ambulance Trust accepted that this shift overrun was overtime which should be taken into account in determining statutory holiday pay under the Working Time Regulations, and that there had been unauthorised deductions from the wages of those workers.
The tribunal ruled that the trust has to include non-guaranteed overtime for “shift overruns” in the workers’ holiday pay because the workers could not leave at the end of the shift if they were in the middle of an emergency call.
Under Regulations 13 and 13A, you must take your basic four weeks’ annual leave in the leave year in which it is due. You can only carry the basic four weeks’ holiday forward if your contract allows it. Some or all of your additional 1.6 weeks’ annual leave can be carried over to the following leave year if your employment contract allows it. This basically means that if you don’t take your annual leave, you will lose it. If your Employer is stringing you along and not allowing you to take your leave, you should give formal notice under WTR 1998. See Taking your holiday and giving notice below.
In a case where an employee did not take holidays because the employer refused to pay holiday pay, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) said that his paid holiday entitlement carried over to subsequent years. Please note that this was a non-binding opinion by the Advocate General of the CJEU. In King v The Sash Window Workshop (2016), the Advocate General said that where a worker does not use their entitlement to paid holiday because they would not be paid by their employer, the worker can claim he was prevented from exercising his right to such paid leave. The right then carries over until the worker has had the opportunity to exercise it (in this case on termination of employment). The worker does not have to ask to take his leave first before being able to establish whether he is entitled to be paid for it, because the risk of not being paid for the leave would be a deterrent to taking it. The payment in lieu for untaken holiday entitlement should cover the full period of employment until termination of the employment relationship.
Regulation 15(1) says that you can decide when you want to take your statutory leave entitlement and Regulation 15(4)(a) requires you to give an Employee notice to your Employer. You don’t have to give the Employee notice in writing, but it’s a very good idea to do so. You must give twice as many days in advance of the first day of your leave as the total number of days you want to take for your leave. For example, if you want to take 5 days off, you must give at least 10 days’ notice to your Employer. Your Employer can refuse your leave request without giving you a reason but you must receive at least 3 days counter-notice of the refusal. You may have a notice procedure in your employment contract which is better than the statutory procedure.
Under Regulation 15(2), your Employer can tell you when to take or when not to take your annual leave in any given leave year by giving you an Employer’s notice under Regulation 15(3). The Employer’s notice does not have to be in writing, but must be given at least twice as many days in advance of the earliest leave day as the number of days to which the Employer notice relates. For example, if your Employer wants you to take two weeks’ holiday at Christmas, you must be given at least four weeks’ notice. Your Employer can ask you to take your holidays in a period where you would not have been working anyway, for example Teachers taking their leave during school holidays.
The main rules about holiday entitlement during sick leave have been developed by three cases, which are Kigass Aero Components Ltd. V Brown , Stringer & Others v HM Revenue and Customs  and Pereda v Madrid Movilidad SA . Your employment contract may have better terms and conditions than what has been established by case law, so check its provisions. The established principles would only apply to the 4 weeks leave and not the additional 1.6 weeks, and are as follows;
All contractual terms (except those relating to pay) will remain during ordinary maternity leave and additional maternity leave. Statutory and contractual leave will be accrued as usual during maternity leave – section 71(4), 73(4) Employment Rights Act 1996 (ERA 1996) and Regulation 9 Maternity and Parental Leave etc. Regulations 1999.
WTR 1998 does not allow statutory annual leave to be carried over from one leave year to the next, neither do they allow your Employer to insist that you should carry over the leave that you cannot take because of maternity leave. This would mean that you lose your leave, however the cases of Merino Gomez v Continental Industrias del Caucho SA  and Stringer & Others v HM Revenue and Customs  suggest that your Employer should allow you to carry your leave over because it would be sex discrimination if you were denied your statutory annual leave entitlement because you went on maternity leave. Check your Employer’s Maternity Leave policy for the rules on holidays in your workplace.
The Merino case also says that if your Employer has a general shutdown holiday during your maternity leave, you must be guaranteed your annual leave at another time falling outside your maternity leave.
You continue to accrue your statutory leave under WTR 1998 whilst on parental leave. However, by virtue of Regulation 17 Maternity and Parental Leave etc. Regulations 1999 you do not have the right to contractual holiday unless your employment contract says otherwise.
Religion and belief are “protected characteristics” under section 4 of the Equality Act 2010. “Religion” means any religion, or lack of a religion, and “belief” means any religious or philosophical belief, or lack of such a belief. Manifestations of a religion or belief includes treating certain days as days for worship or rest. Although it is unlawful for an Employer to discriminate in the workplace because of a person’s religion or belief, the EHRC Employment Statutory Code of Practice says that manifestation of that religion or belief is a qualified right which may be limited in certain circumstances.
You have the right to request leave for a religious holiday or festival, and you don’t have to give a reason. Your Employer can refuse your request and justify the refusal with reasons that are not related to your religion or belief.
GOV.UK: Holiday entitlement
ACAS – Holidays and Holiday Pay
Citizens Advice – Holidays and Holiday Pay
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